Luckily you don't have to surf the internet spending hours on researching. This article covers all the angling angles you'll need to know. A huge variety of fly tying materials exist from feathers & hackle to synthetics to dubbing and everything in between.
Again, your choice of materials depends on which fly you’re tying. It may be helpful to look up ingredients used to tie the desired fly until you're familiar with all these materials and how they act both in tying and in the water.
Tutorial videos on YouTube where tyers list the materials they use are helpful.